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How First Aid If The Child Is Sick With Diarrhea?

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How First Aid If The Child Is Sick With Diarrhea?

Diarrhea may have experienced by each person. But did you know that the diarrhea in children may cause death? Diarrhea itself is still the second leading cause of death after respiratory infections for children aged 1-4 years. Because of this, it will be better if you as a parent can give first aid when your child’s diarrhea before being taken to a doctor

When my son declared experiencing diarrhea? 

You or your child is experiencing diarrhoea when occurred: change of frequency (frequency) bowel movements than usual (> 3 times a day). Or a change in the consistency of feces (stool) like so dilute, dilute spring, slimy or bloody. Or Change the amount of dirt being issued than usual (> 200 grams/day)

What causes diarrhea? 

Diarrhea is not really a disease, but it is just one of the symptoms are due to other diseases. A disease that can cause diarrhea are:

* Bacterial infections such as: Salmonellae, Shigellae, Escherichia coli, etc.
* Viral infections such as: Rotaviruses, Norwalk viruses etc.
Parasitic Infection such as: * Amebiasis, Giardia etc.
* The State of malabsorbsi as in lactose intolerance, pancreatitis, gallstone blockages etc.
* Anatomical Abnormalities such as: colon malrotasi, hischprung diseases, etc.
* Endocrine Abnormalities such as hipertiroid, Addison’s disease, diabetes mellitus, etc food poisoning, allergies, drug side effects in children,

The main causes of diarrhea

the main cause of diarrhea is a virus especially rotaviruses (except children age < 2 months). So it is a self limiting disease (can heal themselves) without the necessity of antibiotic drugs. Then why diarrhea can cause death? The main cause of death in diarrhea is due to loss of fluids and electrolytes in large quantities, so that fluid balance disturbances occurred, the shock hipovolemik to death.

Signs someone is losing fluids (dehydration) is as follows:

* Mild Dehydration:
normal physical appearance, increased thirst (drinking continue to ask for the children), decreased amount of urine (urine) is out.

* Dehydration are: 
child’s skin is cold and pale, eyes concave, concave Cantle, the tears, the mucosa of the lips and mouth dry, children fret (irritable) or even limp (lethargy), urine comes out little or nothing.

* Severe Dehydration:
the skin is cold and pale, no tears, the child was limp, the Cantle and eyes very concave, no urine comes out, no thirst (child refuses to drink), when the skin of the abdomen thus old leather dicubit back to the original form.

What first aid when children diarrhea?

* First aid and primary for diarrhea is to keep fluids in the body enough. Liquid water not only here but also the body’s electrolyte. Usually the liquids used are ORS.

* Give ors by as much as 50 ml/mild dehydration to kg/weight and 100 ml/kgwheight when dehydrated medium. When in doubt, think of your child is dehydrated. For example,your child’s weight is 10 kg, then given oral rehydration therapy is 100 mL/kg x 10 =1000 ml. Liquid is given within at least 4 hours after the first attack of diarrhea. Thenfor every subsequent diarrhea attacks give 10-20 ml/kgBB ORS. Liquid oral rehydration therapy this does not need to be spent in all SIPs, but simply providecontinuously slowly.

* Fixed give your child eat and drink outside the giving of oral rehydration therapy
The myth is wrong when during diarrhoea, children are not given food, as this would further lengthening his recovery. Children can eat and drink as usual with regularmenu anyway. Breast feeding or formula milk is still given, and infant formula does not need to bediluted 

How to make oral rehydration therapy right?

Each sachet ORS dissolved in 200 ml of warm water and oral rehydration therapy may only be used for 24 hours only. When the time has elapsed, replace with new ORS.When it didn’t get to buy oral rehydration therapy, you can make your own liquid oral rehydration therapy by means of:

* Dissolve one spoon of sugar and ¼ spoon salt in 200 ml of warm water or
* Dissolve eight scoops of sugar and a spoon of salt in a 1000 ml warm water

But ORS tastes awful?

For this one, you can buy a special oral rehydration therapy for children with varioustaste like candy or fruit flavors for example pedialyt.

What about the drink body fluids as sold the market? 

This product can also be givenas a substitute for oral rehydration therapy. It’s just carbonated drinks, tea or fruit juices should be avoided as a replacement fluid.

When children have to be taken to the hospital?

* Diarrhea is not cured within 3 days
* Feces (stool) containing blood or pus or feces is black
* There are signs dehydration are heavy body temperature to above 380 c
* Children complained of abdominal pain is great
* The more frequent bowel movements and myriad
* Continuous Vomiting
* Thirst no
* Can’t drink or eat

If there is one of the signs on top of this, then we suggest that you or your child were immediately taken to hospital

Surely it is better to prevent than treat, to prevent diarrhea in children include:

* Encourage movement of hand-washing with SOAP. Wash your hands before and after eating, before cooking and serving food, and before and after urination ordefecation.
* Water Cook until done. By the way if the water was boiling, wait for 15 minutes before it turned off.
* Wash your ingredients with water flow
* Keep your food equipment in enclosed places
* Close food and drink so there is no easily contaminated from outside
* Avoid hawker outside
* Make a child infant formula in accordance with the rate set by the milk products.
* Keep the environment clean around you

First aid for diarrhoea is not only applicable to your child but also for you. Hope fully useful


Richard E. Behrman, Md., Robert M. Kliegman, Md., P. B., Md. Jenson. 2004. NelsonTextbook of Pediatrics 17th edition. Usa: Elsevier Science

MS Subijanto, Reza Ranuh, Djupri, Liek Pitono Soeparto.


Division Of Gastroenterology/SMF Lab Health Sciences Kid FK Unair/RSU Dr. SeotomoSurabaya

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