Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that is capable of attacking anyone. Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic condition and be held lifetime that affects the body’s ability to use energy from food. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
As many as 350 million people worldwide have diabetes. In 2004, approximately 3-4 million people died of high blood sugar levels. More than 80% of deaths from diabetes disease occurred in countries with medium and low-income levels. WHO estimates that the number of deaths due to diabetes will increase two-fold over the period 2005-2030.
#Cause of Diabetes
The principle causes of diseases like diabetes of any kind is a disruption of the body’s ability to use glucose into cells. Normal body is able to break down the sugars and carbohydrates you eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose is the fuel for the cells in the body. To enter the glucose into the cells, the cells need insulin. In people with diabetes mellitus, the body has no insulin (diabetes mellitus type 1) or that there is inadequate insulin (diabetes mellitus type 2).
Because the cells can not take up glucose, the glucose accumulates in the bloodstream. High blood glucose levels can damage the small blood vessels in the kidneys, heart, eyes, nervous system. That is why diabetes, especially if left untreated, can eventually lead to heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, and nerve damage in the legs.
#Symptom of Diabetes
Both types of diabetes have several symptoms and signs are the same.
- Hunger and fatigue. The body converts the food eaten into glucose and used to produce energy. When insulin is not optimal anymore or does not exist, then the body will feel tired easily and quickly hungry.
- Urinate more frequently and being easily thirsty. The average person usually urinates between 4-7 times in 24 hours, but people with diabetes may be more frequent. Why? Usually, the kidney will absorb glucose followed by absorption of water. But as diabetes, blood sugar levels have been increased so that the body may not absorb the glucose. Finally, the water that passes through the kidneys into more.
- Dry mouth and itchy skin. Because of the body more frequent urination, there is less water for other things. You can get dehydrated, and your mouth may feel dry. Dry skin can make you itch.
- Blurred vision. Changes in the level of fluid in the body can make the lens in the eye to swell so that the eye lens to change shape and lose the ability to focus.
- In certain circumstances, there are symptoms that tend to appear after the glucose has been high for a long time.
- Fungal infections. Both men and women with diabetes could be affected by this. Fungi like glucose, so people with diabetes make easy growing mushrooms. Infection can be grown in areas of the skin that are warm and moist skin folds crate that is in between fingers and toes, under the breasts, around the sex organs
- Slow wound healing. Over time, high blood sugar can affect blood flow and cause nerve damage that makes it difficult for your body to heal wounds.
- Pain or numbness in the legs.
- Weight loss. If the body can not get energy from you, the cell will begin to burn muscle and fat to obtain other energy sources instead. Patients will lose weight despite not exercising or not eat less.
- Nausea and vomiting. When the body burns energy sources other than glucose, the burning it in the form of “ketone.” The blood may fall under acidic pH conditions. perhaps life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketones can be made to feel stomach pain, nausea, and vomiting.
Management of Diabetes Type 1 and 2
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin-dependent diabetes. Had called child-onset diabetes, because it often begins in childhood. But over time, many studies have shown that type 1 diabetes can occur also in adults.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. This is due to the pancreas are attacked by antibodies patient’s own body. In people with type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make insulin-damaged. This type of diabetes can be caused by genetic predisposition.
A number of medical risks associated with type 1 diabetes
Many of them come from damage to small blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerve (diabetic neuropathy), and kidney (diabetic nephropathy). Even more serious risk is the increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
Treatment for type 1 diabetes is by giving insulin, by injection through the skin into the fat tissue (usually in abdominal fat tissue).
Diabetes Type 2
By far, the widest form of diabetes is type 2 diabetes, 95% of cases of diabetes in adults. Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes, but with many cases of the epidemic of obesity in children, many new teens who also have type 2 diabetes Type 2 diabetes is also called non-insulin dependent diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes usually milder than type 1 diabetes because the pancreas was never able to produce insulin, but because of the lifestyle and the food was not awake pancreatic “exhaustion”. The pancreas is able to produce some insulin. But whether the number generated is not sufficient for the needs of the body, or other body cells become “resistant” to insulin so that the cells become insulin resistant. Insulin resistance, or a lack of sensitivity to insulin, occurs mostly in fat cells, liver, and muscle cells.
Just as diabetes type 1, diabetes type 2 is capable of causing health complications, especially in the smallest blood vessels in the body such as the kidneys, nerves, and eyes. Type 2 diabetes also increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.
People who are obese – with a body weight of more than 20% of ideal body weight – very high risk for developing type 2 diabetes Overweight people tend to have insulin resistance. With insulin resistance, the pancreas has to work too hard to produce more insulin. But despite that, there is not enough insulin to maintain normal sugar.
There is no cure for diabetes. At first, type 2 diabetes can be controlled with weight management, nutrition, and exercise. Unfortunately, type 2 diabetes usually develops, in the end, rely more rapidly upon so antidiabetic drugs are often needed.
A1C test is a blood test that estimated average glucose levels in your blood during the previous three months. Periodic A1C testing may be advised to see how well diet, exercise, and medications work to control blood sugar and results to be seen to prevent organ damage. A1C test is usually done a few times a year.
Call your doctor if:
- Feeling very severe abdominal pain, weakness, and very thirsty
- When urinating very frequently and more
- Breathing deeper and faster than normal (a marker of severity in diabetes)
- Have a sweet-smelling breath like nail polish. (This is a sign of very high levels of ketones
Source : (Dr. Ursula Penny)